Written By: Devin Golden

Asbestos Risk for 9/11 First Responders and Survivors

The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, shook the bedrock of American society. Decades after Twin Towers collapsed, there’s a surge in 9/11-related mesothelioma cases.

Retired LCDR Carl Jewett

Reviewed By

Retired LCDR Carl Jewett

VA-Accredited Claims Agent

Retired LCDR Carl Jewett

Reviewed By

Retired LCDR Carl Jewett

VA-Accredited Claims Agent


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Ground Zero — The Unknown Health Hazard

When the World Trade Centers collapsed on 9/11, a cloud of toxic dust and debris blanketed Manhattan. This dust contained an array of carcinogenic particles: lead, mercury, dioxins, benzene and, of course, asbestos.

First responders, survivors and lower Manhattan residents all were exposed to loose asbestos particles on that day — and for weeks after. Mesothelioma takes 20-50 years to form after exposure, so the initial wave of mesothelioma cases is coming. In fact, there was already a reported case of a 9/11 first responder.

Asbestos in the World Trade Centers

Asbestos was a headline-grabber following 9/11. Reports analyzed how much asbestos was scattered throughout downtown New York City from the Twin Towers debris. Even in 2001, though, not all Americans knew asbestos could cause cancer.

Construction on the twin towers began August 5, 1966, before any regulations had been placed on asbestos. The National Resources Defense Council estimates 300-400 tons of asbestos in the North Tower.

At the time the Twin Towers were built, asbestos was considered a safe fire-retardant component. When stable and undisturbed, asbestos is harmless. However, the towers crumbling broke apart the thousands upon thousands of sharp fibers and sent them into the open New York air.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initially reported no long-term health risk for 9/11 asbestos exposure. A week after the attacks, though, the EPA uncovered new data:

  • Around 25% of bulk dust samples consisted of a troublesome amount of asbestos by the agency’s own standards (more than 1%)
  • Seven samples had levels between 2.1% and 3.3%

Who Is At Risk?

Anyone in lower Manhattan when the Twin Towers collapsed was at risk of asbestos exposure. This group is at risk of developing mesothelioma and other asbestos-related diseases:

  • First responders
  • Employees working in the World Trade Center or surrounding buildings
  • Residents of the lower Manhattan area

The Office of Inspector General’s report from 2003 criticized the delayed “government-organized and adequately monitored cleanup in Lower Manhattan.” It states the poor response “may have contributed to unnecessary exposure to asbestos and other pollutants by unprotected workers and residents.”

First Responders

First responders are the heroes who ran towards the mayhem and helped save many American lives following the attacks. These brave people include firefighters, emergency workers, police and some private citizens.

Many first responders were not considering the toxins they were inhaling or ingesting as they saved lives. Most had no respiratory protection equipment.

The Lancelet states firefighters are an example of a first responder group at risk. Firefighters exposed to 9/11 asbestos from the World Trade Center are 19% more likely than other firefighters to develop cancer.

In October 2019, a 52-year-old first responder from Pennsylvania died of mesothelioma. Doctors linked his cancer to 9/11 asbestos exposure. He was a firefighter in the White Oak Rescue team, which responded to 9/11 rescue needs.

The victim was diagnosed with stage 3 pleural mesothelioma, and he died a few months later. Dr. Raja Flores is the director of thoracic surgical oncology at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. He believes this case is the first of many, possibly in the tens of even hundreds.

Residents and Workers of Lower Manhattan

Unfortunately, officials did not close and quarantine the areas blanketed in asbestos. The EPA mistakenly said the levels of asbestos were not a concern.

Asbestos fibers are minuscule. They can remain airborne for days, weeks or months. The EPA and other agencies continued testing air quality for months after the terrorist attacks. People who lived in the danger areas faced an ongoing health crisis, and some may develop mesothelioma due to it.



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9/11 Victim Compensation Fund

The James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act was signed into law in 2011 to help the victims of exposure to the toxins released on 9/11. The act pays tribute to James Zadroga, the first 9/11 responder to die from an exposure-related illness. The act was initially approved for five years.

Depleted Funding

In 2015, the U.S. government recommitted to the funding for 9/11 first responders. By 2019, though, funding for 9/11 dust-disease victims was depleted.

Comedian and talk-show host Jon Stewart made multiple passionate pleas throughout the decade to Congress to supply more funding. In June 2019, Stewart criticized Congress for what he perceived as a lack of care regarding 9/11 firefighters and other first responders.

“As I sit here today, I can’t help but think what an incredible metaphor this room is for the entire process that getting health care and benefits for 9/11 first responders has come to,” Stewart said to Congress. “Behind me, a filled room of 9/11 first responders, and in front of me, a nearly empty Congress.”

Government’s Eventual Long-Term Commitment

In July 2019, the government passed House Resolution 1327, which is titled “The Never Forget the Heroes: James Zadroga, Ray Pfeifer, and Luis Alvarez Permanent Authorization of the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund.” The bill authorizes $10.2 billion for the next 10 years and additional funding through 2090.

Sources & Author

  1. Aerial images of the World Trade Center show the site’s evolution from 1966 to now. Business Insider. Retrieved from: https://www.businessinsider.com/world-trade-center-evolution-in-aerial-images-2018-8. Accessed: 08/11/2020.
  2. The Environmental Impacts of the World Trade Center Attacks. National Resources Defense Council. Retrieved from: https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/wtc.pdf. Accessed: 11/05/19.
  3. EPA’s Response to the World Trade Center Collapse: Challenges, Successes, and Areas for Improvement. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/wtc_report_20030821.pdf. Accessed: 11/05/19.
  4. 9/11 hero’s cancer death linked to ground zero exposure. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved from: https://www.post-gazette.com/local/region/2019/11/04/nick-ursta-9-11-hero-dies-of-cancer-Ground-Zero-exposure-versailles/stories/201910300142. Accessed: 11/05/19.
  5. James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act (2010) and Reauthorization Act (2015). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/wtc/laws.html. Accessed: 07/02/2020.
  6. The battle over extending the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund, explained. Vox. Retrieved from: https://www.vox.com/2019/6/20/18691670/jon-stewart-9-11-september-11th-victim-compensation-fund-explained. Accessed: 07/02/2020.
  7. About the Victim Compensation Fund. Victim Compensation Fund. Retrieved from: https://www.vcf.gov/about. Accessed: 07/02/2020.
  8. Early assessment of cancer outcomes in New York City firefighters after the 9/11 attacks: an observational cohort study. The Lancelet. Retrieved from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2811%2960989-6/fulltext. Accessed: 07/02/2020.
Devin Golden

About the Writer, Devin Golden

Devin Golden is the senior content writer for Mesothelioma Guide. He produces mesothelioma-related content on various mediums, including the Mesothelioma Guide website and social media channels. Devin's objective is to translate complex information regarding mesothelioma into informative, easily absorbable content to help patients and their loved ones.