Peritoneal mesothelioma is a form of cancer affecting the lining of the stomach (the peritoneum). It is caused by the ingestion of asbestos fibers.

What is Peritoneal Mesothelioma?

Peritoneal mesothelioma accounts for 20% – 25% of all mesothelioma cases. It is the most common diagnosis after pleural mesothelioma. Peritoneal patients have longer life expectancies than those with other types of mesothelioma. Some studies report patients living upwards of 5 years after cytoreductive surgery.

How Is Peritoneal Mesothelioma Treated?

  • Peritoneal Mesothelioma Icon

    Cytoreductive Surgery

    This is the only surgical option available to those with a peritoneal diagnosis. Luckily, this surgery has high success rates and is also used to treat other abdominal malignancies.

  • Mesothelioma Chemotherapy Treatment Icon

    Chemotherapy

    This is the most common treatment method used for peritoneal mesothelioma. It is sometimes administered directly to the abdomen during surgery.

  • Mesothelioma Radiation Treatment Icon

    Radiation

    This is typically the least invasive treatment option for peritoneal patients. Radiation may be delivered during surgery as well.

Get Connected To Dr. Paul Sugarbaker

Dr. Sugarbaker is a leading surgical innovator for peritoneal mesothelioma. His work with heated chemotherapy has made HIPEC a common procedure among peritoneal mesothelioma patients.

Why Choose Dr. Paul Sugarbaker?
  • Developed HIPEC a.k.a. “the Sugarbaker procedure”
  • Has treated many mesothelioma survivors
  • Involved in clinical trials and research




Symptoms

A patient with peritoneal mesothelioma may not experience symptoms at all. If symptoms are demonstrated, they may be mistaken for other illnesses. The earlier the mesothelioma is detected, the sooner it can be treated. One common symptom in many peritoneal mesothelioma patients is the existence of fluid pockets called ascites, which often cause the stomach region to bulge outward. Other symptoms include:

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Blood Clots
  • Fatigue
  • Fluid Buildup (Ascites)
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal Swelling
  • Fever or Sweating
  • Tissue Lumps in the Abdomen
  • Anemia
  • Seizures
  • Bowel Problems

In most cases, peritoneal mesothelioma does not spread to the lungs. It has been shown to spread to the other abdominal areas, such as ovaries, liver, or intestines. This metastasis often causes it to become discovered and sometimes misdiagnosed. Symptoms of stomach pains or ascites sometimes results in a misdiagnosis of hernias or a simple stomachache.

Causes

Similar to pleural mesothelioma, peritoneal mesothelioma is most common in males between the ages of 50-69 years old. Men who have the highest rates of peritoneal mesothelioma are veterans and those with occupational exposure to asbestos.

Peritoneal mesothelioma does not usually spread to the lymphatic system (lymph nodes) or blood stream. It usually metastasizes in large masses in the same areas where it originated.

How Does Peritoneal Mesothelioma Develop?

  • 1
    Asbestos fibers are ingested and lodge into the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum).
  • 2
    The body attempts to filter and remove these fibers, but sometimes the fibers attach to the peritoneum.
  • 3
    Scar tissue builds up as a response to the body’s fight against the irritation of the fibers and can result in genetic cell damage. This can cause unchecked cell division and the formation of a malignant tumor.
Peritoneal Mesothelioma Body
Peritoneal Mesothelioma Abdomen

Peritoneal Mesothelioma

Diagnosis

CT scans or MRI test results may not show the presence of mesothelioma. It is often confused with abdominal distension (gas). X-rays are the most commonly used imaging tool to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma.

Doctors may also use a technique called peritoneoscopy. During this procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision on the patient’s abdomen and uses a small camera to explore the abdomen. There is also a tool on the camera that helps to extract tissue on the peritoneum to test for mesothelioma.

Doctors do not use a standard staging system when diagnosing peritoneal mesothelioma.

Generally, in stage 1, the mesothelioma is centralized in the abdomen and is more than likely able to be entirely removed. As it progresses to stage 2, the mesothelioma may spread more but is still contained in the peritoneum. In the third stage, it begins to metastasize to other organs, such as the liver and colon. In the final stage, stage 4, the mesothelioma has spread to other organs.

Treatment

Treatment options are dependent on the stage a peritoneal mesothelioma patient is diagnosed with. There are more curative treatment options, like cytoreduction surgery, for patients with earlier stages.

Patients in the later stages may receive palliative treatments, like radiation or chemotherapy. Another palliative treatment option may be a paracentesis to drain the fluid buildup in the abdomen.

The most successful treatment conducted has been the combination of cytoreduction surgery and HIPEC (hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy). The cytoreduction removes most of the cancerous tumor and HIPEC has been shown to kill the remaining cells.

This treatment has been relatively successful in patients with good general health. Some patients have lived as long as 7 years after having this surgery.

Find a mesothelioma specialist offering this treatment option using our free Doctor Match program.

Surgery

Cytoreduction Surgery

Mesothelioma Cytoreduction Surgery TreatmentCytoreduction is also referred to as “debulking.” The goal of cytoreduction is to remove as much of the tumor as possible, though it is often not possible to remove the entire tumor. The peritoneum (lining of the abdomen) is completely removed and is usually performed in patients with stage 1 or 2 peritoneal mesothelioma.

It is also performed for other abdominal malignancies, so it is performed widely. Cytoreduction recovery can take anywhere from 7 to 13 days. One study showed a majority of patients experiencing nausea up to 13 days after their surgery. Regular activities, such as eating, drinking, re-gaining bowel functions, and mobilization were re-established within 11 days after the cytoreduction and HIPEC.

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy is also known as HIPEC treatment. HIPEC is used in patients who have cancers of the abdomen. This high dose of chemotherapy is intended to kill any remaining mesothelioma cells left after a cytoreduction surgery. HIPEC is a heated and sterilized chemotherapy treatment.

Dr. Paul Sugarbaker led the way in innovating cytoreduction with HIPEC for patients with peritoneal mesothelioma.

The side effects of this chemotherapy are less than those of regularly administered chemotherapy. At the end of the 60-90 minutes, the chemotherapy is washed out of the body.

  • Also referred to as “hot chemo”.
  • Usually done after cytoreduction.
  • Administered both during surgery (most effective) and after using an abdominal catheter.

Secondary Treatment

Chemotherapy

Peritoneal mesothelioma patients in the later stages may receive chemotherapy for palliative purposes. Patients may be given a combination of Alimta and cisplatin, the same treatment given to pleural patients. Studies are also being done on the effectiveness of the drugs vinorelbine and gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin.

A case in 2009 showed promise in treating peritoneal mesothelioma by combining two popular chemotherapy drugs. A patient went in for an unrelated procedure and signs of peritoneal mesothelioma were found. The patient was given the combination of Alimta (500 mg) and cisplatin (80 mg).

After the first six cycles all signs and markers of the peritoneal mesothelioma were gone. Six months later, CT scans showed no changes or reoccurrence regarding the mesothelioma. After 4 years, the patient is alive with no signs of disease progression.

Studies show the normal survival rate of patients with peritoneal mesothelioma is around 7.6 months if they do not receive chemotherapy. Forty-one percent of patients who were given the combination experienced improvement, while 17% showed satisfactory results with cisplatin alone.

On average, patients who received the combination of Alimta and cisplatin lived 12.1 months longer compared to 9.3 months on just cisplatin.

Radiation

For many peritoneal mesothelioma patients, radiation is not usually effective. It may shrink tumors before or after a cytoreduction. However, there have been no reported cases of complete eradication by solely using radiation. A mesothelioma specialist can determine if radiation is right for the patient based on their specific diagnosis.

Prognosis

Although there isn’t currently a cure for mesothelioma, the outlook of new research is hopeful. There have been cases of long-term survivors who have been in remission for over fifteen years. The most successful cases are those whose mesothelioma is detected in the earlier stages and treatment immediately begins. Most cases include a cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC.

Although there are similarities between pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, the treatment options differ. The median survival time for patients who have not had the cytoreductive surgery is about a year; however, in patients who have had the surgery, survival grows up to five years.

Learn how mesothelioma survivors beat the odds in our free Mesothelioma Survivors Guide.